Thursday, May 21, 2020
In the tragedy of the Sandy Hook Elementary shooting, shooter Adam Lanza murdered 20 children and 6 teachers. Some people look at this event as a terrible tragedy because it struck them emotionally that 20 children had died. Others look at this event as a tragedy because it is rare, one of kind freak accident that definitely does not happen every day, or even years. According to nces.ed.gov, the chance of a random shooting to occur at any elementary school in the U.S is 1 in 88,962, and the chance of any elementary school child getting killed is roughly 1 in 23 million. This is less than the chance of hitting a jackpot for an average lottery which is at 1 in 15 million. Wayne LaPierre, who is the National Rifle AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s viceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To maximize the effect of pathos, rather than using bad guys and criminals, LaPierre uses words like Ã¢â¬Å"monstersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"predatorsÃ¢â¬ to provoke fear. Doing so creates a sense of urgency among his audien ce that something must be done to save these little children and that is exactly what LaPierre aimed for as he later proposes a solution for this problem. LaPierreÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of words such as Ã¢â¬Å"monstersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"predatorsÃ¢â¬ definitely helps to contribute success in his use of pathos as it effectively demonstrates the danger their children faces. However, the reason why his pathos works extraordinarily well is because of the audience, who are made of NRAÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters and victims of the Newtown shooting. In other words, the audience basically would have agreed with LaPierre despite what he says as long it is what they want to hear which is putting down the bad guys or the Ã¢â¬Å"monstersÃ¢â¬ and empathizing for the children. Nonetheless, this strategy will have its flaws when where the audience is less personally involved and is able to read the transcript. In that case, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions will become harder to manipulate as LaPierre loses the a bility to put his voice in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s head, and so the readers are able to form opinions with their own brains rather than LaPierre telling them what to think. In the end, pathos works wonder for LaPierre when he is able to speak directly to the audience but not so effective when it is being read from a paper.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It is after a good deal of self-assessment that I have decided to pursue undergraduate studies in the Industrial Distribution program at Texas A and M University. As a statement of purpose for admission into the school, I describe here, my areas of interest, why I chose Texas A and M, and my objectives and career goals. Ever since elementary school, I have been a big fan of engineering. My inspiration came from the likes of Graham Bell and Albert Einstein with the invention of the telephone and the mass-energy equivalence equation, respectively. With the aim to join them in the wall of fame, I participated actively in my science and math classes, and clubs related to the field. As I grew older and had the fortunate chance of working at various retail stores, I began to develop an interest in business and how it worked. It was only a matter of time before this interest was strengthened and I began contemplating whether to major in engineering or business. This unfortunately left me indecisive in my choice of major for a while in college. But after a visit to a Texas A and M prospective student center, I was informed about the Industrial Distribution program and at that moment, I was certain of what I wanted to study. My exposure in the field of engineering can be traced back to my high school days. Not only did I take science classes such as physics, but I was also a member of two engineering clubs which taught numerous material outside the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculum. With thatShow MoreRelatedMicro Manufacture Essay796 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis workshop proposal submitted by Texas AM University Ã¢â¬Å"Convergence HTF: From Making to Micro-Manufacture: Reimagining Work Beyond Mass ProductionÃ¢â¬ with the objective of discussing the future of manufacturing work by convening a reimagination of the relationship of multiple fields of inquiry from Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Economics, the Social Sciences, Industrial Engineering and Education. A two-stage strategy is proposed to establishRead MoreHow can Marketing mix model help Manchester United build its global brand?1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBernd Helmig is Full Professor, Chair and Head of Department for Business Administration, Public Nonprofit Management at the University of Mannheim (Germany). Besides he acts as Academic Director for Executive Education of Mannheim Business School. 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Can Art Change the Way We View the World? Susan Agee Classics in Philosophy of Art Ã¢â¬â P346 Gregory Steel Fall 2012 For centuries, art has been interwoven throughout the history of mankind. From primitive carvings on cave walls and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, to the Sistine Chapel and the Mona Lisa, artistic creations have enthralled the human race. Art may be a window to the creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s world; it has potential to instill desire in the viewer to do something they have never done, be somewhere they have never been and inspire to fulfill a dream or goal. We will write a custom essay sample on Can Art Change the Way We View the World or any similar topic only for you Order Now Additionally, Art may possibly allow the artist to illustrate their own perception of a place or even attempt to deceive the viewer. However, to truly understand how we see the world we must delve a little deeper than the obvious, which is through our senses, particularly sight. In order to comprehend the world around us, we must first realize that thoughts are based on perception foremost and that those ideas then create a subjective model of the world, constructed from experience, memory, logical inference, and our brainÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to map out its own internal representation of our individual surroundings. Therefore, whether it is through visual art, literature, poems, sculpture, photography or cinema, art may very well be able to change the way we see the world, by changing our perception. The first recognizable art dates from at least 38. 000BC in Europe, Africa, and Australia. They are the products of minds as intellectually capable and sophisticated as our modern ones and they were just like us, despite the fact that their society was slightly more primitive than ours. Works of this early period are not simple, as if created by a child, but in fact they are quite complex pieces depicting animals, humans and symbols. Additionally, drawings similar to maps, as well as carvings, portable art and elaborately decorated animal skulls have been found in caves all over the world. In the book The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art by David Lewis-Williams, the author describes these items stating Ã¢â¬Å"many of these pieces bear images of animal, fish, birds and, less commonly, what appear to be human figures as well as complex arrangements of parallel lines, chevrons and notches. These objects dÃ¢â¬â¢art as people tend to think of them, were made from bone, mammoth ivory, amber and antlerÃ¢â¬ (Lewis-Williams 2004). Were these ancient artists creating images to simply communicate with others or were they expressing their emotions in the only way they knew how? Although there is no way to tell for certain the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions, it is evident that this Ã¢â¬Å"artÃ¢â¬ played a role in prehistoric society. Still, art has not always had the same meaning as it does today. In fact, in the time of the philosophers Plato, Socrates and Aristotle the idea of art was related to the Latin word ars, which means craft or specialized form. These individuals based their views of art on the notion that the artist must be trained for his craft and each had differing, yet very similar ideas about art and its place in society. For instance, Socrates believed that paintings and poems Ã¢â¬Å"stand triply removed from the real; that is, there are two realms of existence more real than art objects, the Forms themselves and the things of daily life. The basis for this view is the assumption that the goal of art is the imitation of mundane realityÃ¢â¬ (Wartenberg, 13). Our brain has developed a way of viewing the world over millions of years of evolution that enables us to succeed and survive. Natural selection has tuned our brains so that we may navigate, manipulate, and meaningfully differentiate our environment and the objects contained in it. So what we see in our minds is a functional model of the physical world, which closely approximates it but is not identical to it; certainly not in the way we are in the habit of assuming. But still this traditional skepticism about perceptual experience has often created questions as to whether we can know that things are as we experience them as being, or if the visual world is a grand illusion. To illustrate this idea that perceptual experience may be different than what is real, consider the optical illusion. Artists such as Charles Allan Gilbert and M. C. Escher were masters of the craft of illusion in art. For example, in 1892 Charles Allan Gilbert drew a picture that he called Ã¢â¬Å"All is VanityÃ¢â¬ . This piece of artwork is an ambiguous optical illusion using a skull, which has been the object of many pieces of this type, where we see more than one thing in the picture. If we view the overall image, we see a human skull. When we focus on the details of the picture, we see a woman ooking in her vanity mirror. If we look at a close-up, cropped image of Ã¢â¬Å"All is VanityÃ¢â¬ , we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the skull we just see details of a woman sitting at her dressing table. However, if we expand our view, even without seeing the entire image, once we know weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to see a skull, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but see it. Also, when we look at the picture from a distan ce, because of all the black surrounding it, once the details of the woman get distorted we still only see a skull. Additionally, M. C. Escher used his expertise in mathematics to create his optical illusions in art. He was fascinated with tessellations, which are arrangements of closed shapes that completely cover the plane without overlapping and without leaving gaps. Typically, the shapes making up a tessellation are polygons or similar regular shapes, such as the square tiles often used on floors. Escher, however, was fascinated by every kind of tessellation Ã¢â¬â regular and irregular Ã¢â¬â and took special delight in what he called Ã¢â¬Å"metamorphoses,Ã¢â¬ in which the shapes changed and interacted with each other, and sometimes even broke free of the plane itself. The regular solids, known as polyhedra, held a special fascination for Escher. He made them the subject of many of his works and included them as secondary elements in a great many more. In the woodcut Ã¢â¬Å"Four Regular SolidsÃ¢â¬ Escher has intersected all but one of the Platonic solids in such a way that their symmetries are aligned, and he has made them translucent so that each is discernible through the others. Additionally, among the most important of EscherÃ¢â¬â¢s works from a mathematical point of view are those dealing with the nature of space. In the book Ã¢â¬Å"The Magic of M. C. EscherÃ¢â¬ J. I. Locher states Ã¢â¬Å" this unique interplay between insight and limitation, between possible and impossible worlds has given EscherÃ¢â¬â¢s body of work a wholly personal presence in the panorama of visual artsÃ¢â¬ (J. I. Locher 2000). His woodcut Ã¢â¬Å"Circle Limit IIIÃ¢â¬ is a good place to review these works, for it exemplifies the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s concern with the dimensionality of space, and with the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to discern three-dimensionality in a two-dimensional representation and Escher often exploited this latter feature to achieve astonishing visual effects. To get a sense of what this space is like, one can imagine that he or she is actually in the picture itself. Walking from the center of the picture towards its edge, he/she would shrink just as the fishes in the picture do, so that to actually reach the edge one would have to walk a distance that, to the individual, seems infinite. Indeed, being inside this hyperbolic space, it would not be immediately obvious that anything was unusual about it Ã¢â¬â after all, one has to walk an infinite distance to get to the edge of ordinary Euclidean space too. However, if one is observant enough, he/she might begin to notice some odd things, such as that all similar triangles were the same size, and that no straight-sided figure we could draw would have four right angles; that is, this space doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any squares or rectangles. In addition to ambiguous and mathematical illusions, there is a process known as anamorphosis. There are two types of anamorphosis: perspective or oblique and Mirror, or catoptric. It requires the viewer to use special devices or occupy a specific vantage point to recreate the image. While some of these works of art are more advanced than others, one thing remains constant; the perception of depth in a two-dimensional illustration. With mirror anamorphosis, a conical or cylindrical mirror is placed on the drawing or painting to transform a flat distorted image into a three dimensional picture that can be viewed from many angles. The deformed image is painted on a plane surface surrounding the mirror. By looking uniquely into the mirror, the image appears as it should in natural form. Just as Escher and Gilbert were masters in creating works of illusion with their drawings, so too are the artists that give life to their renditions of this type. Salvador Dali was among many other artists of his time to have been intrigued with this form of art and utilized this technique in many of his paintings. Modern day artists of this sort use sidewalks, underpasses, buildings and pavement as their canvases. This type of art is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"3D artÃ¢â¬ and it has been seen everywhere from London to New York. How to cite Can Art Change the Way We View the World, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
As far as BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Evolution of the Language of CinemaÃ¢â¬ might be used as a formal test of categorisationÃ¢â¬ânotwithstanding the problematics inherent in his oversimplification of the realist and expressionist methodologyÃ¢â¬âinitial viewing of Jules et Jim seems to present a dichotomous structure. Certainly, a number of BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s criteria for realism are met: camera movement; long-takes; composition-in-depth. and deep focus; a certain ambiguity of meaning. Similarly, several of BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s criteria for expressionism also can be found: there is spatial and temporal discontinuity; editing is used for artistic effect; reality is augmented to create a world only vaguely like our own, and so on. The dichotomy though is only apparent. The over-all effect created by Truffaut shows Jules et Jim belonging more comfortably in the expressionistic domain; and, as we shall discover, devices which would normallyÃ¢â¬âat least according to BazinÃ¢â¬âdeliver the effect of realism are utilised by Truffaut as tools of expressionism. We will write a custom essay sample on The Evolution of the Language of Cinema or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In our analysis of Jules et Jim, rather than examine fleetingly the whole gamut of expressionistic techniques, we shall instead explore in some detail the more important methods, paying particular attention to temporal and spatial distortions, editing and montage, special visual effects, and finally discover the manner in which BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s archetypal techniques of realismÃ¢â¬âlong-takes and composition-in-depth. Ã¢â¬âare recast. Certainly one of the most striking features of Jules et Jim is temporal distortion. Truffaut utilises this effect by various means and for various purposes. In the first two minutes of the film, time is condensed in two ways: by the third person narrative, which encapsulates the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s exposition in the most laconic of terms, describing the meeting and developing friendship of Jules and Jim, and also by the selective images which largely avoid redunant description of the aural narrative, but instead seek to interpret and compliment. Accordingly, when the narrator tells us that Jules is a foreigner in Paris; that he wants to go to an art studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ball; and that Jim gets him a ticket and costume, the image we are offered is a simple one of the two playing dominoes. This image, incidentally, becomes a leitmotif in the film, supporting the theme of friendship and is touchingly varied much later when Jules plays instead with his daughter. Next, the narrator tells us that their friendship grows; the ball takes place; that Jules has tender eyes. The overlaid image though is of Jules and Jim hunting for a costume. It is interesting to note here that Truffaut not only condenses time, as already described, but creates a temporal duality, for the narrator has reached a moment subsequent to the ball, whilst we still watch the two friends costume hunting. This is the first instance of dual time lines, but it is often repeated. Simply stated, the audio narrativeÃ¢â¬âand on other occasions the dialogue of the characterÃ¢â¬âprovides a temporal foundation that allows great visual freedom. The expressionistic effect of this temporal condensation and duality combined with the third person narrative is to produce a story book quality, as if we are presented not with real life but with a real story. This quality is underlined by the frequent story telling of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢. More precisely, the initial style created by this method has a simplistic quality much like a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s story: the narration avoids hyperbole and treats exposition as bare-bones plot. Like a child having a story read to him, Truffaut provides us with the filmatic equivalentÃ¢â¬âthough an equivalent which in many ways has greater potentialÃ¢â¬âand we are allowed to look at the pictures, even when the storyÃ¢â¬ânarrationÃ¢â¬âhas advanced beyond their range. As well as temporal condensing and duality, Truffaut also makes use of temporal displacement. An early example of this occurs when Jules and Jim meet up with the anonymous anarchistÃ¢â¬â¢s girlfriend. The sequence begins with the girl running out of the frame to the left. The camera pans and we see her running away in a shot composed with shallow depth of field, with Jules and Jim out of focus in the distance. Another cut, this time bringing us in front of the girl. Again the camera pans, this time as the girl approaches. Another cut brings us in front of Jules and Jim. We begin to see the establishment of a pattern of shots in this sequence: cutting, panning, cutting, moving ahead, panning and so on. The rhythm produced by the combination of camera movement and editing reinforces the temporal rhythm; but when the girl finally links arms with Jules and Jim and they set off running, the next cut not only brings us spatially ahead of the figures, as the rhythm caused us to anticipate, but temporally ahead: the scene has suddenly changed, with buildings becoming a fence and bushes. To reinforce the visual cues regarding the discontiguous time, the thread of causality is now shown to be broken: we now see and hear the three inexplicably laughing. Temporal displacement continues: the next cut shows the three seated in a carriage, though the laughterÃ¢â¬âon the soundtrack onlyÃ¢â¬âfrom the previous shot continues. Once again, the effect of this temporal tampering is to create a simple story-book world in which only the essentials are included. Truffaut though makes other use of temporal distortion. In the slide viewing scene, for example, when Albert shows Jules and Jim a picture of the bewitching statue, the slow rhythm established by Albert manually changing slides one by one is suddenly broken when we jump rapidly from one slide to the next, with the time taken to change slides cut. The realism of the moment is similarly broken. This disruption shocks us and our suspension of disbelief is briefly forfeit. At once we are aware that this is a film we watch. A work of art. At the same time the film screenÃ¢â¬âupon which the film art (Jules et Jim) is displayedÃ¢â¬âpresents us with the slide screenÃ¢â¬âupon which the photographic art (the slide) is displayedÃ¢â¬âwhich itself shows a sculpted work of art (the statue). This is an early example of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s preoccupation with art and film in particular, which becomes sometimes almost self-reflexive. Another example of this reverie for art which profits from temporal manipulation occurs when Jules shows Jim photographs of his old girl friends. We see the photographs passed, yet the close ups to which we cut show JimÃ¢â¬â¢s hands conspicuous by there absence. Indeed, the pictures are framed entirely in darkness, as works of art which exist in an entirely different temporal and spatial plane. Elsewhere, Truffaut presents old film footage in what seems a glorification of the mediumÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to immortalise. The art theme aside, the temporal jump we witness with the slide show also serves to underline the importance of the moment. Truffaut, throughout Jules et Jim, uses various techniquesÃ¢â¬âmontage, freeze frame, rapid zoom etc. Ã¢â¬âto draw our attention to significant Ã¢â¬Å"hot spots. Ã¢â¬ Like a sudden cymbal crash in a romantic musical passage, these techniques demand our attention. Even when Truffaut maintains temporal continuity, we might still witness the unexpected: Certainly there is no lack of causality when Jules and Jim voyage to the Adriatic in search of the statue they saw on the slide. But it is the suddenness of their arrival that takes our breath away: from a close-up of the statueÃ¢â¬â¢s lips we cut to Jules and Jim on that far away island. And if this seems an unlikely hunt, we should recall the context is a stylised world, a story book world, an expressionistic world where wonderful and strange things do indeed come to pass. To turn now from temporal to spatial distortion: an early example of this takes place when Catherine, Jules and Jim race across the bridge. The main purpose of this scene is character exposition, showing CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to cheatÃ¢â¬âshe is already cheating her femininity by dressing as a manÃ¢â¬âin order to attain her goals. When we see the three of them at the beginning of the bridge, bending to a starting position, with CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent darting ahead of time, there is a sudden cut which reveals the figures now displaced. The race no longer starts at the beginning of the bridge but at least a third of the way down. And so we see a sympathy between the filmÃ¢â¬âthe form that Truffaut createsÃ¢â¬âand the characters in the film: where Catherine cheats in the race by changing the time of the start, the film itself cheats in the race by changing the place of the start. We shall later examine another example of this sympathy of form for content, but it should be noted with this minor example that it produces something which is not limited by realism, for it creates two realities: the one in the film and the other of the film. The next technique we shall examine is editing and montage. Like temporal and spatial distortion, this, according to Bazin, is a fundamental component of expressionism. It should come as no surprise thenÃ¢â¬âat least from the standpoint of this thesisÃ¢â¬âthat it forms an integral part of Jules et Jim. Indeed, it might be said to be the most importantÃ¢â¬ânumerically at leastÃ¢â¬â stylistic device in the film. Truffaut make many and varied use of editing and montage. We shall examine first the way in which montage creates a narrative effect similar to, though in the absence of, the third person narrative1. One characteristic example is the dress burning episode. The sequence begins with a long-take, composed in depth, with little activity. Jim moves CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s bicycle and does other bits of business. The pace then is deliberately slow. Catherine takes a pile of letters and says she wishes to burn lies. From the moment the words are blurted, the montage sequence proper begins. In contrast to the plodding long-take, we now cut rapidly from one brief shot to another, constantly changing angles; and in the space of twenty-four seconds we see twenty separate shots. The short shots are hand held, and the additional movement of the camera augments the excitement created by the fast paced montage. But nothing has actually happened. Catherine is still simply setting light to the papers on the floor. It is the montage which, like the now absent narrator, warns us that something will happen. Once the dress is alight, the danger is no longer potential but actual. The short shots continue with rapid pans and tilts, the montage serving now to intensify our impression of danger. But because the danger was first suggested and then maintained by a stylistic device, and since it comes from what must be an omniscient source and portrays a symbolic actionÃ¢â¬âCatherine burning liesÃ¢â¬âwe begin to realise that this montage speaks of a more ominous and far reaching danger than the one we see: the danger Catherine must face when stripped of her protective pretence, when she must finally confront absolute truth which fails to conform to her idealised image. The danger of burning lies then, the narrative of montage tells us, is the danger of absolute truth. Another important example of montage as narrative occurs when Catherine throws herself off the bridge in mock suicide. Again we see rapid cutting, with five shotsÃ¢â¬âthis time staticÃ¢â¬âin the space of only two seconds. There is also a brief temporal displacement, as the fourth shot begins prior to the conclusion of the third. Since this sequence comes one third of the way into the film, our fluency in the stylistic language of Jules et Jim has reached a point sufficient to grant immediately comprehension. Perhaps we are unsure of the specifics, but we understand that this is at least a key moment and that foreshadowing is the likely translation. Truffaut also uses similar Ã¢â¬Å"visibleÃ¢â¬ editing as an associative device. The most striking example begins with the slide show, which we examined as an example of temporal discontiguity. The static and rapidly changing front and side shots of the statue in the slide sequence is repeated when Jules and Jim finally study the actual statue. After a peculiar and ominous tilt and extremely rapid zoom into the shower rail above Jules and Jim, we are finally presented with Catherine. The same short takes and rapidly changing front and side shots which describe the statue are again employed here. Besides fashioning a thematic link, the montage here also continues the ominousness begun at the conclusion of the previous shower scene. At this point, and for some time to come, Catherine is clearly defined as an objet dÃ¢â¬â¢art. Note also how she presents herself on the patio at the sea-side house, first serious then smiling, as a model in varied poses. This demonstrates another instance of sympathy of form for content: since Catherine presents herself as a model, the film, in sympathy, treats her as one, with each pose held in a freeze frame: each pose rendered a framed picture. Catherine then, as that objet dÃ¢â¬â¢art, is to be admired and praised and glorified. It is only when Jules and Jim begin to know her that she becomes a Queen, and must then, in addition, be obeyed. Catherines car tumbling over the broken bridge offers our final example of associative montage. Using an almost identical method: static shots, rapid cuts, varied angles, this scene is linked through montage to the very early episode when Catherine jumped from the Parisian bridge. Because of their great separation in timeÃ¢â¬âthough as we have seen, time as a stream of causality is far from overflowing its banks in this world where there seems little physical evidence of the characters ageingÃ¢â¬âthe connection of these two events both in relation to the mise-en-scene and montage makes a final allusion to the Ã¢â¬Å"whirlpoolÃ¢â¬ quality of life. This Ã¢â¬Å"whirlpoolÃ¢â¬ interpretation is, of course, CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s and finds expression in her song which, characteristically, is about herself and which all three men, Jules and Jim and Albert, believe is written from their point of view! The whirlpool analogy suggests an existence which turns and repeats past events in slight variationÃ¢â¬âa view which the content and form of the film seems to uphold. To sum up: the above examples of what we have called narrative montage in essence allude to aspects of character, future events or information which exists not entirely in the mise-en-scene or dialogue alone, and offers further evidence of the expressionistic tendency of Jules et Jim. Special visual effects are clearly an affirmation of BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"faith in the imageÃ¢â¬ of expressionism. One particularly moving example of this occurs at the garden party when Catherine is first introduced. After some interesting shots of feet which describe the sexual motivations of Jim: Ã¢â¬Å"JimÃ¢â¬â¢s foot stayed near Catherines. She moved hers away firstÃ¢â¬ ; and the more heart centred nature of Jules: Ã¢â¬Å"Jules was happy and moved his feet awayÃ¢â¬ ; the picture fades to black with the exception of a rectangular frame which isolate Jules and Catherine. This continues the art and photographic glorification theme, but more particularly is a foreshadowing of their marriage. A very similar effect is created when Jules and Jim look out of the cabin window into the night. Ã¢â¬Å"Listen to that mole cricket. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like a mole,Ã¢â¬ Jules comments. The night scene then fades entirely to black. The next shot fills only the top right corner of the screenÃ¢â¬âthe rest remaining black. It shows the hill on which Jules lives. The darkness with light at one end suggests a tunnel-like view. The juxtaposition of the shot and the previous comment suggests a mole tunnel. The house on the hill becomes a mole hill. The implication then is that Jules has burrowed his way into seclusion and securityÃ¢â¬âand away from the light and excitement and danger which Catherine craves. 2 Other interpretations are possibleÃ¢â¬âand indeed likely; the point is that from such stylistic devices comes the ambiguity of Jules et Jim, not from BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s composition-in-depth. We have, of course, examined only a few of the expressionistic techniques and examples which fill Jules et Jim like a myriad of brush strokes on canvas. We turn now though to the long-take and composition-in-depth, traditionally the devices of realism. Firstly, the greatest number of long-takes and the most important compositions in depth occur, notably, as the film developes. This fact alone is enough to suggest that their purpose is something other than affecting realism. Even if we borrow an interpretation that agrees such scenes do lend realism, the question remains: how real a world is it that displays only sparodic reality? It seems clear that their purpose is not so much for realism per se, but to create a number of effects: to demonstrate a harmony with the almost pastoral scenes; to provide a change in mood and tone, for the film slips ever more into a sombre, pensive, meditative and tragic state; as a sypathetic response to the character with special emphasis on their situations. When Jules and Catherine and Jim are reunited in the cabin after the war, we see a number of longish takes composed in depth, sometimes intercut with shot and reverse shots. The effect, despite the occasional cuts, is of smoothly passing time. But the realism of temporal continuity and spatial depth is used not as an end in itself, but as a means of intensifying and demonstrating the discomfort they now feel together. The dialogue itself confirms this as they make strained small talk about time. After so many short-takes, the long-take now has the effect of time slowed down, with every awkward moment stretched out and made more awkward. Further, Jules and Jim have changed. Jules no longer smokes; Jim does. Jules takes a drink; Jim does not. Jules has a new interest in biology; Jules does not. Most of all, Jules has a wife . . . Just as temporal continuity becomes an expressionistic device here, enhancing reality in sympathy with emotions of the characters, rather than simply displaying it, so too does the spatial realism. Its realistic effect is indeed manifest, but Truffaut, by executing rapid pans from one character to another, intensifies their individual dialogues. Thus, when Jules says, Ã¢â¬Å"So you won the war, you louse,Ã¢â¬ the subsequent rapid pan to Jim emphasises the chasm that now separates them. Their opposition, though the war is over, to some degree remains still. When Jim pointedly responds, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but IÃ¢â¬â¢d rather have won this,Ã¢â¬ we pan again rapidly to Jules and his daughter and then to Catherine. Also, the triangle, already graphically displayed at the sea-side house when they each stand at the sun drenched windows, is again graphically drawn, though here in a less concrete medium: the triangle is etched in three-dimensional space by the rapid movement of the camera. It is the speed of the movement that not only serves to demonstrate their distance from each other, but also to draw our attention to that movement and thus make the line it draws graphically clear. In another episode at the cabin, a sequence of long-takes provides a number of interesting effects, least of which is realism. It begins with Catherine endlessly listing wines. At the same time Jules talks about a shell falling down steps. Catherine rises, moves to the door and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Catch me. Ã¢â¬ Jim obeys. None of these events, besides JimÃ¢â¬â¢s compliance, have any causal rapport. The fact that this all occurs in a long-take underlines the breakdown in causality, the strangeness of it all, for nothing clearly can have been cut. After the pointless chase, another long-take begins. It adds to the tranquillity of the night and the sombreness of the darkness. After almost three minutes there is a cut: a break. The break occurs because Catherine was both literally and metaphorically left behind. During her walk with Jim she has paused while he continued. The spatial distance is an expression of temporal distance: she has reached a happy moment in the history she recounts and is briefly lost in the pleasant moment of the past. It is the moment when Ã¢â¬Å"Jules wrote wonderful love letters. Ã¢â¬ The break between Catherine and Jim and between Catherine and the presentÃ¢â¬âJulesÃ¢â¬âis made concrete by the break in the long-take. There is no other purpose, for as they come together and the walk in the present continues, the long-take is resumed. As we have seen then, not only is the overall effect of Jules et Jim expressionistic, but most of the specific devices are intended to maintain that effect. TruffautÃ¢â¬â¢s aim in Jules et Jim is not so much BazinÃ¢â¬â¢s much aclaimed true to life realism, which exhorts the banishment of such dainty devices as symbolism and the metaphors created by montage, but an expressionism redolent of literature which extols such devices. He creates a world distorted by personal emotion, using the language of image in the quintessential terms of expressionism: to express feelings rather than to represent stark reality. He creates a simplified, stylised world by temporal manipulation; directs our interpretation by the subtle subtext of narrative and associative montage; makes delicate points by special visual effects. But above all he treats the characters and situations of Jules et Jim with a sympathy which is demonstrated in the relationship between form and content. Sources Cited Truffaut, Francois Jules et Jim 1962 Notes: 1 By referring to montage as narrative I mean any additional message, inference or even association which his imbued in the montage itself. I realise that this interpretation stretches credulity to the breaking point. In its defence I can only mention that it did not actually break and still remains in one piece.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Pres. George W. Bush and the Middle East essays This essy explores 3 Bush quotes about the Middle East to analyze, from a layperson's perspective: 1) what is he saying (or trying to say)? 2) are his administrations policies consistent with the statement? Quote @ "There's nothing more deep than recognizing Israel's right to exist. That's the most deep thought of all. ... I can't think of anything more deep than that right." This statement seems to be the result of very shallow thinking: a more literate person would most likely have substituted "profound" for "deep" in the sense of "thoroughgoing; far-reaching: profound social changes; penetrating beyond what is superficial or obvious." Looking at the history of the conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians, I wonder why the Palestinians' right to their homeland is not also considered "deep"? There are even Israeli and Jewish American organizations that agree that if the Israeli government is serious about peace, they will withdraw settlers from Palestinian lands. In the same press conference that this quote came from, Bush all but affirms that the Israelis are friends, while the Palestinians are just, well, Palestinians... "But we're concerned about the Middle East, because it's affecting the lives of the Palestinians and our friends, the Israelis." Quote B: "There's a lot of people in the Middle East who are desirous to get into the Mitchell process. Andbut first things first. Thethese terrorist acts and, you know, the responses have got to end in order for us to get the frameworkthe groundworknot framework, the groundwork to discuss a framework for peace, to lay theall right." 1. There are Middle Eastern people who want to follow the Mitchell Plan. What's the Mitchell Plan? It's a plan developed by a group of Middle East experts, led by former U.S. Senator George Mitchell and including Warren Rudman and their colleagues Suleyman Demirel(Turkey), ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
The 1990s and Beyond The 1990s brought a new president, Bill Clinton (1993-2000). A cautious, moderate Democrat, Clinton sounded some of the same themes as his predecessors. After unsuccessfully urging Congress to enact an ambitious proposal to expand health-insurance coverage, Clinton declared that the era of big government was over in America. He pushed to strengthen market forces in some sectors, working with Congress to open local telephone service to competition. He also joined Republicans to reduce welfare benefits. Still, although Clinton reduced the size of the federal workforce, the government continued to play a crucial role in the nations economy. Most of the major innovations of the New Deal and a good many of the Great Society remained in place. And the Federal Reserve system continued to regulate the overall pace of economic activity, with a watchful eye for any signs of renewed inflation. The economy, meanwhile, turned in an increasingly healthy performance as the 1990s progressed. With the fall of the Soviet Union and Eastern European communism in the late 1980s, trade opportunities expanded greatly. Technological developments brought a wide range of sophisticated new electronic products. Innovations in telecommunications and computer networking spawned a vast computer hardware and software industry and revolutionized the way many industries operate. The economy grew rapidly, and corporate earnings rose rapidly. Combined with low inflation and low unemployment, strong profits sent the stock market surging; the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which had stood at just 1,000 in the late 1970s, hit the 11,000 mark in 1999, adding substantially to the wealth of many though not all Americans. Japans economy, often considered a model by Americans in the 1980s, fell into a prolonged recession a development that led many economists to conclude that the more flexible, less planned, and more competitive American approach was, in fact, a better strategy for economic growth in the new, globally-integrated environment. Americas labor force changed markedly during the 1990s. Continuing a long-term trend, the number of farmers declined. A small portion of workers had jobs in industry, while a much greater share worked in the service sector, in jobs ranging from store clerks to financial planners. If steel and shoes were no longer American manufacturing mainstays, computers and the software that make them run were. After peaking at $290,000 million in 1992, the federal budget steadily shrank as economic growth increased tax revenues. In 1998, the government posted its first surplus in 30 years, although a huge debt mainly in the form of promised future Social Security payments to the baby boomers remained. Economists, surprised at the combination of rapid growth and continued low inflation, debated whether the United States had a new economy capable of sustaining a faster growth rate than seemed possible based on the experiences of the previous 40 years. - Next Article: Global Economic Integration This article is adapted from the book Outline of the U.S. Economy by Conte and Carr and has been adapted with permission from the U.S. Department of State.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Aspects of employment among Chinese international students after graduated from universities in the UK - Dissertation Example The Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) is working hard to open opportunities between countries to provide educational services. The team is striving to assemble stakeholders from both educational sectors and trade in international forums. They focus mainly on assessing and maintaining records of cross border post secondary education and making all efforts to increase the demand of such education. They are also monitoring the pattern of quality development to see that international standards are maintained. Since the beginning of this century, various programs of cross border education have emerged. Such programs create the opportunities for many international benefits like educational institutes in all countries are focusing on developing an international approach in their systems. There are four mutually associated approaches behind such developments: Ã¢â¬Å"desire to promote mutual understanding; the migration of skilled workers in a globalised economy; the desir e of the institutions to generate additional revenues; or the need to build a more educated work-force in the home countriesÃ¢â¬ (Internationalisation of Higher Education, 2004). There has been a rapid growth of international mobility of students in the last few years. In mid-1990s, OECD countries hosted around 85 percent of all students from across the world who have approached foreign education. Europe is the most popular choice for foreign students but North America ranks first in providing educational opportunities to all students striving for education abroad. Research has shown that 60 percent of all international students are from the Asian region (OECD, 2004, p.11). There are many other elements attached to cross border education that needs explanation. Globalization which means flow of people, culture, knowledge etc. across borders helps to promote interconnectivity and interdependence between nations. Education is one sector which is strongly affected by globalization. Then there is internationalisation of higher education which means making educational activities like teaching, research and service of international standard and also integrating intercultural elements into education system. There are also internationalisation activities which include agreements between institutes across borders, international or intercultural standardization of teaching process, mobility of teachers and students, and also campus based extracurricular activities. Another term associated with cross border education is trade of education services which focuses on Ã¢â¬Å"cross border education initiatives that are commercial in nature and are usually intended to be for-profit in natureÃ¢â¬ (Cross border tertiary education, 2007, pp.23-24). In recent times there has been a growing demand of post secondary education as well as profession based courses. There are various reasons behind this like increasing population in countries, increasing number of students complet ing their secondary education, growing demand for continuous education till late age and growth of consciousness regarding importance of education. It is now becoming difficult for public sectors to cope with the rising demand of higher education. Therefore, alternative processes of education are developing. Such processes include private sectors getting involved in providing education, emphasis on distance learning which has become more prominent with